Blazon: Azure semé de lis or (France ancien) dimidiated with gules a chain in saltire, cross, and orle or, charged in the center with a pomme (Navarre)
I do want to briefly talk about some variations of the French national arms before we revisit the various regions and major cities. I wanted to touch on this particular coat not just because Louis X has a really excellent epithet (Louis the Stubborn!), but also because it’s a not-very-common example of dimidiation. Dimidiation is often used in the same circumstances as impalement or quartering – in this case, Louis inherited the kingdom of Navarre from his mother in 1305, and that of France from his father in 1314. The distinction there is that while both impalement and quartering keep both sets of original arms intact, dimidiation literally cuts them in half and reforms them into a single coat. Sometimes, like in this example, it works pretty well, and both arms are still easily identifiable. More often, though, dimidiation yields confusing or just plain weird results, so it’s understandable why it’s not used very often. (I’ve seen theories that badly planned dimidiation is where we get griffins, but they’re blatantly wrong; griffins predate heraldry by a good couple of millennia.)
According to legend, theformer (ancien) arms of France originated when Clovis I, first king of the Franks, was baptized. He adopted the lily ashis new emblem to symbolize the purity of the Virgin Mary and his new faith. However, despite this legend and its name, the fleur-de-lis (literally, lily flower) doesn’t actually look very much like a lily. Most credible authorities, including Boutell,Dalloway, and numerous French heralds, assert that the depiction is intended as some form of flower, probably an iris, that was later confused with a lily. However, there is a poorly-supported but persistent theory that it is actually a stylizedspearhead. While this would explain the bizarre figure of leopard’s headsjessant-de-lis, there isn’t much else to recommend it.
Blazon: Per quarterly I and IV argent on a cross azure five crescents or (Piccolomini); II and III paly of four i or four palets gules (Aragon), ii barry of eight gules and argent (Hungary ancien), iii azure semé de lis or, a label of four points gules (Anjou ancien), iv argent a cross paté between four crosses or (Jerusalem)
Ottavio inherited the quarters of Aragon, Hungary ancien, Anjou ancien, and Jerusalem from his ancestor Antonio Piccolomini d’Aragona, who married Maria d’Aragona, the illegitimate daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples. Many representations have Ferdinand’s arms in the first and third quarters, as Maria’s lineage was (though illegitimate) more noble than Antonio’s.
Blazon: Per quarterly I and IV lozengy argent and gules (Appiani), II and III per quarterly i and iv tierced per pale 1 barry of eight gules and argent (Hungary ancien), 2 azure semé de lis or (France ancien), and 3 argent a cross paté between four crosses or (Jerusalem), ii and iii or four palets gules (Aragon); overall a chief gules a cross argent (Savoy)
“Louis” appears to be Alfonso d’Appiani, brother of Jacopo VI. He seems to have been a military man, possibly serving under Ferdinando II de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Blazon: Per quarterly I and IV lozengy argent and gules (Appiani), II and III per quarterly i and iv tierced per pale 1 barry of eight gules and argent (Hungary ancien), 2 azure semé de lis or (France ancien), and 3 argent a cross paté between four crosses or (Jerusalem), ii and iii or four palets gules (Aragon)
The alliance between the Appianis and the house of Aragon began (informally) in 1445, when Emanuele Appiani married Colia de’ Giudici, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso V of Naples. His great-grandson Jacopo V also married into the house of Aragon via Marianna of Aragon in 1510, though she died before she could bear any children.
From The Blazon of Gentrie by Sir John Ferne (1586) p222.
Blazon: Per pale azure semé de lis or, a label of three points gules (Naples) and barry of eight argent and gules (Hungary ancien).
Unusually, Joanna bears her paternal arms on the dexter side of the shield, which was generally reserved for their husbands’ arms. The sinister side shows the arms of her first husband, Andrew, Duke of Calabria
Blazon: Per fess I per pale i per quarterly 1 and 4 gules a castle triple-towered or windowed azure (Castile), 2 and 3 argent a lion rampant gules crowned or (León), ii per pale 1 or four palets gules (Aragon) and 2 per saltire a. and d. or four palets gules (Aragon) and b. and c. argent an eagle displayed sable crowned or (Sicily), pointé in base argent a pomegranate slipped and seeded proper (Granada); overall in the honor point an escutcheon gules a chain in saltire, cross, and orle or, charged with a center point vert (Navarre), in the nombril point an escutcheon argent five escutcheons in cross azure each charged with as many plates in saltire, all within a bordure gules charged with seven castles or (Portugal); II per quarterly i gules a fess argent (Austria), ii azure semé de lis or within a bordure compony gules and argent (Burgundy moderne), iii bendy of six or and azure within a bordure gules (Burgundy ancien), iv sable a lion rampant crowned or, armed and langued gules (Brabant), overall in the fess point an escutcheon per pale or a lion rampant sable armed and langued gules (Flanders) and argent an eagle displayed gules armed and langued or (Tyrol)