Arms of the Duke of Normandy

From The Blazon of Gentrie by Sir John Ferne (1586) p218

Blazon: Gules two lions passant guardant or

According to Ferne, this was the coat of arms of England during the reigns of William the Conqueror, William II, Henry I, and Henry II, about 1066-1189. It is unclear if he recognizes Stephen or Matilda as rulers of England. It should also be noted that Henry II probably did not use this coat; it seems more possible that he bore gules, a lion rampant or, or a variation thereof, though sources are rare.

In the twelfth century king Henry the second caused certain figures to be painted, which had a descriptive reference to his name; the planta genistae, or broom sprig, and a genet passing between two broom trees.

-From Inquires into the Origin and Progress of the Science of Heraldry in England by James Dallaway, p423

Military objects used as heraldic charges

 From Inquiries into the Origin and Process of the Science of Heraldry in England by James Dallaway, p454

Left to right (click on the names for more examples of each charge):

The escarbuncle. While its origin is not certain, it is believed to have been a way of reinforcing wooden shields. It is probably best known as the badge of Henry II of England, taken from the ancient arms of the French region of Anjou.

The helmet, while most often seen as a component of complete achievements, does occasionally appear by itself as a charge.

The pheon was an ancient dart head. Although its shape and function are similar to the arrowhead, the pheon is barbed.