Blazon: Per quarterly I gules a castle triple-towered or windowed azure (Castile); II argent a lion rampant gules, armed, langued, and crowned or (Léon); III argent a cross of Calatrava gules; IV gules two hammers in saltire or; overall in an escutcheon azure three fleurs-de-lis or within a bordure gules(Anjou moderne)
The hammers are likely a reference to the importance of mining in the town’s history. Almadén was a major source of mercury and cinnabar since Roman times. Carlos III established an Academy of Mining in the region in 1777. The name of the town is derived from the Arabic “hisn al-ma’din”, or “fort of the mine.” The cross probably reflects Alfonso VII’s grant of the region to the Order of Calatrava in 1168.
Blazon: Argent two vines* intertwined vert, in the dexter chief an escutcheon sable a lion rampant double-queued or langued and crowned gules, in the sinister chief an escutcheon fusilly in bend azure and argent
The vine motif seems to be extremely old, possibly dating back to 1331 or even earlier. It remains consistent across many different versions of the arms. The escutcheons in the chief are probably derived from the arms of the Electoral Palatinate. The lion was the symbol of the County Palatine. The argent and azure fusils originally belonged to the Counts of Bogen, but were adopted by the House of Wittelsbach in 1247, and are often used for Bavaria.
*I have not had any luck identifying the specific types of vines shown here. Most depictions of the arms do go out of their way to distinguish between the dexter and sinister vines, which is a good indication that they are intended to be different, but I cannot determine the exact species.
Arms of David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon 1214?-1219 (1144-1219) and Matilda de Blondeville (1171-1233)
From p43 of Lacies Nobilitie by Sir John Ferne (1586)
Blazon: Per pale baron and femme; the first argent an escutcheon within a tresseure fleury counter-fleury gules, the second azure three garbs or
As grandson of David I of Scotland and younger brother of William I of Scotland, David was entitled to bear the royal arms with a difference. Judging from Ferne’s depiction, he used two methods of differencing that are more typical of
Scottish heraldry than English: changing the tinctures and using a different charge. The tresseure and use of gules still clearly connects him to the royal family of Scotland. According to Ferne, the nontraditional differencing is due to
his royal blood, since “for the difference being little & in the feeld far off, not easely to be perceaved, should bring a confusion to the people, so that is should be difficult to them, to discerne which is their King.” (63) He
attributes the specific choice of argent and an escutcheon to “the defense of verity, and sincere truth, signified by the cullor of white.” (65)
Marquis of Mortemart 1643-1663, duke of Mortemart 1663-1675 (1600-1675)
Blazon: Party of eight I gules a crescent vair (Maure), II azure three fleurs-de-lis or surmounted by a bendlet couped gules (Bourbon), III gules nine mascles 3, 3, and 3 or (Rohan), IV barry of ten argent and azure, three chevronels gules (La Rochefoucauld); V argent a serpent nowed azure, crowned or, and devouring a child gules (Milan), VI gules a chain in saltire, cross, and orle or, charged with a center point vert (Navarre), VII gules a pale vair (des Cars), VIII ermine (Bretagne); overall in the fess point an escutcheon barry nebuly of six argent and gules (Rochechouart)