Arms of Vibo Valentia, Italy

Vibo Valentia

In use since at least 2009; possibly granted 1992?

Blazon: Per pale, I per fess or a cross potent sable and azure a Doric column issuant from the base of the shield argent; II gules a lion rampant or langued of the field

I don’t have a lot of information on these arms; the best I can do is speculate that the charges in the dexter half of the shield are either drawn directly from the provincial arms of Calabria, or stem from the same sources. Per the description of those arms, the cross potent stands for Bohemond I of Antioch, and the Doric capital is a reference to the region’s former status as part of Magna Graecia.

Arms of Cosenza, Italy

Cosenza

Granted 1938

Blazon: Argent a cross potent sable

Once again, the cross potent sable is used here as an homage to Bohemond I of Antioch, one of the most prominent participants in the First Crusade. He founded the Principality of Antioch in 1098; it survived as an actual principality until 1268, although Bohemond’s heirs continued to use the title until 1457. Bohemond was born in Cosenza, so it makes sense to me that this province would use the undifferentiated and unquartered symbol. I should note, though, that the cross potent does not appear either in the arms of Bohemond’s house, de Hauteville, or the attributed arms of Antioch, which may or may not have ever been used.

Arms of Catanzaro, Italy

Catanzaro

Granted 1938

Blazon: Per saltire I and IV or four palets gules and II and III argent a cross potent sable 

The palets in the first and fourth quarters reflect the arms of Aragon. The house of Aragon ruled Catanzaro as part of the Kingdom of Sicily since 1372 (1313 if you listen to Frederick III of Sicily), uniting it to the crown of Aragon in 1412. While I don’t know for sure, I’d guess that the cross potent sable, like the same figure in the arms of Calabria, refers to Bohemond I of Antioch and his service on the First Crusade.

Arms of Calabria, Italy

Calabria

Granted 1992

Blazon: Per saltire or and argent; in chief a larch pine eradicated vert, in dexter a cross paté pommettée of eight, in sinister a cross potent sable, in base a Doric capital azure

I’m sure you’ll be shocked to hear that every one of these charges has a specific symbolic and/or historical meaning. The pine tree is both a common species in the region (Pinus nigra laricio, if you’re curious) and a symbol of the region’s natural beauty. The capital is, unsurprisingly, a reference to the area’s legacy as part of Magna Graecia. The dexter cross is representative of the time the region spent as part of the Byzantine Empire, and the sinister cross represents Bohemond I of Antioch and those who accompanied him on the First Crusade. (Bohemond was the son of the count of Apulia and Calabria before he headed off to the Holy Land and founded his own principality.)

The dexter cross seems to be described variously as a Greek cross (no), pommé (sort of?), and a Byzantine cross (maybe, if there was any kind of consensus as to what that means). I don’t think any of those accurately describe what’s depicted here, so I did my best to describe it with the terms I’m familiar with. (In case you can’t tell, I borrowed some of the language from the traditional description of a cross of Toulouse.) The sinister cross is almost definitely supposed to be a cross potent, due to the reference to Jerusalem, but it seems to be drawn more like a very weird cross crosslet.

Arms of Henri de Mayenne

Baron of Aiguillon 1578-1599, later duke of Aiguillon 1599-1621, and duke of Mayenne 1611-1621 (1578-1621)

Blazon: Per quarterly I and IV per quarterly i and iv per pale barry of eight gules and argent (Hungary ancien) and azure semé de lis or, a label of three points gules (Kingdom of Naples), ii per pale argent a cross potent between four crosses couped or (Jerusalem) and or four palets gules (Aragon), iii per pale azure semé de lis or within a bordure gules (Anjou) and azure a lion counter-rampant or crowned gules (Gueldre); iv per pale or a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules (Juliers) and azure semé des cross crosslets fitchy, two fish hauriant addorsed or (Bar); overall a label of three points gules, in the fess point an escutcheon or on a bend gules three alerions argent (Lorraine); II and III per quarterly i and iv azure an eagle displayed argent, armed and crowned or, ii and iii azure three fleurs-de-lis or within a bordure parted dancetty gules and the second (Este)

Arms of Victor Amadeus I

Duke of Savoy 1630-1637 (1587-1637)

Blazon: Per quarterly I per quarterly i argent a cross potent between four crosses couped or (Jerusalem), ii barry of ten argent and azure, a lion rampant gules, armed, langued, and crowned or (Lusignan), iii or a lion rampant gules, armed, langued, and crowned azure (Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia), iv argent a lion rampant gules, armed, langued, and crowned or (Cyprus); II per pale gules a horse salient to the sinister argent (Westphalia) and barry of ten sable and or a ducal coronet in bend vert (Saxony), enté en pointe argent three crampets 1 and 2 gules (Angrie); III per pale argent biletté and a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules (Chablais) and sable a lion rampant argent, armed and langued gules (Aoste); IV per pale chequy of nine or and azure (county of Geneva) and argent a chief gules (Montferrat); overall in the fess point an escutcheon gules a cross argent (Savoy

Arms of Alfonso XIII

King of Spain 1886-1931* (1886-1941)

Blazon: Tierced per fess; I per pale i per pale per saltire a. and d. Aragon, b. and c. argent an eagle displayed sable, armed and langued gules (Sicily) and 2 argent a cross potent between four crosses couped or (Jerusalem), ii per pale 1 gules a fess argent (Austria) and 2 azure semé de lis or within a bordure compony argent and gules (Burgundy ancien); II per pale i or six fleurs-de-lis azure in orle (Farnese) and ii or five torteaux in orle, in chief a roundel of France (Medici); III per pale i bendy of six or and azure within a bordure gules (Burgundy moderne) and ii sable a lion rampant crowned or, armed and langued gules (Brabant), pointé per pale or a lion rampant sable armed and langued gules (Flanders) and argent an eagle displayed gules armed and langued or (Tyrol); overall an escutcheon per quarterly I gules a castle triple-towered or, windowed azure (Castile), II argent a lion rampant gules crowned or (León), III or four palets gules (Aragon), IV gules a chain in orle, cross, and saltire charged with a center point vert (Navarre), enté en point argent a pomegranate proper seeded gules, slipped and leaved vert (Granada) and charged in the fess point with an escutcheon an escutcheon azure three fleurs-de-lis or within a bordure gules (Bourbon-Anjou)

*He started bearing this particular version of the arms only in 1931.