St. Stephen’s Day

Today is the feast day of St. Stephen of Hungary, the very first King of Hungary, canonized in 1083. (In addition to Hungary, he is also the patron saint of kings, masons, bricklayers, and severely ill children.) In honor of him and the nation he founded, I figured we’d take a look at their arms.

Hungary

The nation of Hungary bears per pale barry of gules and argent and of the first, a cross patriarchal paté of the second issuant from a crown upon three mounts in base all proper. I appreciate that it’s a union of old and new(er) arms, and the repeated gules and argent help give the arms a visual unity. 

The dexter arms, barry of eight gules and argent, were used by the Árpáds dating back to 1202. Supposedly, the four white stripes represent the four major rivers – the Danube, Tisza, Dráva, and Száva, which is just boring enough to be plausible. The explanation could just as easily be a post hoc rationalization, though. Depending on the particular ruler and who was drawing the arms, sometimes the red stripes were charged with lions of various positions (passant, respectant, etc.). There are also a few depictions that add linden leaves, such as the Golden Bull of 1222 displaying the seal of Andrew II.

The use of the patriarchal cross is only slightly younger than the bars; Béla IV used it on a royal seal around 1235. However, the mount doesn’t show up for another 35 years or so until the reign of Stephen V. The patriarchal cross was in fairly consistent use until the Catholic House of Anjou came to power in 1308. They impaled the arms of Hungary ancien with the azure semé de lis or of France. With the exception of Louis the Great, the patriarchal cross didn’t reappear in the royal arms until Władysław III in the 1440s. After that, Hungary ancien and Hungary moderne were both in fairly common use in various royal arms (please don’t make me talk about the Habsburgs, please don’t make me talk about the Habsburgs, you thought Liechtenstein was bad, have you seen some of the Habsburg arms?). The combination was popular enough that it was also used by republican governments, and it was reestablished as official in 1990. (From 1957 to 1990, the arms were tierced per fess gules, argent, and vert, which just seems like a cheap knockoff of Italy to me.)

Interestingly, what’s going on around the base of the cross in any particular version can tell you a lot about what was going on with the political situation of Hungary at the time. Louis the Great seems to have been the first to add the crown to the patriarchal cross, and it stuck around until the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. At that point, the crown was removed from the arms as a symbolic rejection of the monarchy, and replaced with a laurel wreath instead. Similarly, the First Hungarian Republic used the ancient-and-moderne combo, but without any crown at all. The crown didn’t really come back until the current version of the arms, and it sounds like it was a minor point of contention, but they obviously ended up going with the crown.

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Arms of Fuenllana, Spain

Fuenllana

Granted 1987

Blazon: Per pale argent a cross of Santiago gules and azure a castle triple-towered or on a mount in base proper, surmounted in base by a basin argent of water barry wavy of the field and the last; pointé in base or a galero vert, in the fess point an alms bag, in base a croizer and a patriarchal cross in saltire sable

The archbishop’s regalia in base is presumably a reference to St. Thomas of Villanova, who was born in Fuenllana in 1488, and later canonized in 1658.

Arms of Stephen Bocskai

 

Prince of Transylvania 1605-1606 (1557-1606)

Blazon: Per pale, 1 per fess gules a cross patriarchal pate issuant from a crown upon three mounts in base all proper (Hungary moderne) and barry of eight gules and argent (Hungary ancien); 2 Per fess azure a demi-eagle issuant from the partition sable, armed or, langued gules, in chief a sun of the third and of the last seven towers 4 and 3 gules, in chief a crescent increscent argent (Transylvania); overall in the fess point an escutcheon azure, on a base vert a lion sejant erect or, holding in the dexter paw a bone argent (Bocskai)

 

 

Arms of Stanislaw August Poniatowski

 

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1764-1795 (1732-1798)

Blazon: Per quarterly I and IV gules an eagle displayed argent, armed and crowned or (Poland); II and III, gules a knight upon a horse salient, bearing in his dexter arm a sword fesswise argent and on his sinister an escutcheon azure a cross patriarchal or (Lithuania); overall in the fess point an escutcheon argent, a bull passant gules upon a base vert (Poniatowski)

Arms of Stanislaw I Leszczynski

 

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1706-1709 and 1733-1736 (1677-1766)

Blazon: Per quarterly I and IV gules an eagle displayed argent, armed and crowned or (Poland); II and III, gules a knight upon a horse salient, bearing in his dexter arm a sword fesswise argent and on his sinister an escutcheon azure a cross patriarchal or (Lithuania); overall in the fess point an escutcheon argent, a bull’s head caboshed sable, ringed and armed or (Leszczynski)