In use since 1282
Blazon: Per fess argent and gules
These arms are apparently an even-more-simplified version of the arms of the house of Hohenberg, which are barry of four argent and gules. The family originated in Austria; though I don’t have any solid evidence, it doesn’t seem like too much of a stretch to connect their family arms to the national arms of gules a fess argent.
From the Dering Roll (c. 1270-1300)
Blazon: Or three water-bougets azure
I did find a considerable history of a de Bussey family, including a Hughs/Hugos/Huges that was alive at the approximate time the Dering Roll was produced… and they all lived in Lincolnshire. It’s not impossible that the de Bussey referred to here is part of the same family, but I’m skeptical, especially since the Lincolnshire de Busseys bore barry argent and sable. That being said, seven or eight hundred years of heraldic history does tend to scramble things a bit.
It’s possible that these are intended to be canting arms – “bouget” is fairly similar to the alternate surname given on the roll, “de Boues.”
In use 1314 – 1316
Blazon: Azure semé de lis or (France ancien) dimidiated with gules a chain in saltire, cross, and orle or, charged in the center with a pomme (Navarre)
I do want to briefly talk about some variations of the French national arms before we revisit the various regions and major cities. I wanted to touch on this particular coat not just because Louis X has a really excellent epithet (Louis the Stubborn!), but also because it’s a not-very-common example of dimidiation. Dimidiation is often used in the same circumstances as impalement or quartering – in this case, Louis inherited the kingdom of Navarre from his mother in 1305, and that of France from his father in 1314. The distinction there is that while both impalement and quartering keep both sets of original arms intact, dimidiation literally cuts them in half and reforms them into a single coat. Sometimes, like in this example, it works pretty well, and both arms are still easily identifiable. More often, though, dimidiation yields confusing or just plain weird results, so it’s understandable why it’s not used very often. (I’ve seen theories that badly planned dimidiation is where we get griffins, but they’re blatantly wrong; griffins predate heraldry by a good couple of millennia.)
Blazon: Argent a tower and lion rampant gules, in chief a molet of five points azure, all within a bordure of the first charged with eight saltires couped or
Unfortunately, I have no idea who Juan Abad might have been, and it seems like nobody else does, either. It seems reasonable to speculate that the tower is a canting element (“torre,” or “tower” in Spanish). The lion is possibly taken from the arms of Alfonso X of Castile, who granted the town’s arms, but I don’t have anything on the saltires or the molet. One last fun fact – Francisco de Quevedo, a prominent satirical Baroque poet, ruled the town for a while after his mother purchased the title for him. While the town apparently didn’t take too kindly to him at the time (read: they sued him, and he won, but only after he died), they now host an “International Graphic Humor Center” in honor of his snarky legacy.
Blazon: Argent on a pale vert between two flanks gules, the dexter charged with five trefoils in pale and the sinister with a chain in pale, a triple mount in base and a stone hut of the field
Donnersbachwald technically no longer exists, as it was incorporated into the municipality of Irdning-Donnersbachtal in 2015. I’d assume that the mount refers to the local geography, which is extremely common for municipal arms. The vert and argent tinctures may be a reference to the Styrian arms, but that’s only speculation. Unfortunately, I’ve got nothing on the stone hut (or Kuppelbau, as the German blazon has it). My guess is that it’s a distinctive archeological construction in the region, which is also a pretty common motif for cities and towns, but I can’t find any mention of something like that. And if you’re wondering why I’ve called the charges on the sides “flanks,” see here. TL;DR it’s a charge specific to German heraldry, and they’re not the same things as flaunches.
In use 1262?-1551?
Blazon: Gules a ladder in pale argent
These arms are a classic example of canting arms – “la scala” is “ladder” in Italian, which is almost identical to the family name of Scaligeri or della Scala. The first recorded della Scala was a clothes merchant named in an 1180 document. The Scaligeri later ruled Verona from 1262 through 1387, when they were ousted after a few decades of fratricide and tyranny. However, they made numerous unsuccessful attempts to recover the city, proving half the truth in their family motto, Nec descendere nec morari (neither descending nor stopping).
Blazon: Sable a bend wavy between in chief three escutcheons in pile argent, charged with 1 three antlers fesswise in pale, 2 two quarters, and 3 an eagle displayed of the field; in base a fountain of the second
The bend wavy represents the river Steinlach, while the fountain represents the local sulfur springs. The tinctures, as well as the second of the escutcheons in the dexter chief, refer to the house of Hohenzollern, which ruled the city until the early 15th century, when it was mortgaged to the house of Württemberg. The two houses continued fighting over the territory until 1441, when Württemberg finally won out. (Their arms are displayed on the first escutcheon in the dexter chief.) The final escutcheon shows the arms of Fürstenberg, and the arrangement of the three escutcheons represents the nearby mountain Dreifürstenstein, which borders the three territories of Hohenzollern, Württemberg, and Fürstenberg. There are also some representations of the arms that only show three escutcheons, without the details depicted here, which, though incomplete, would have been considerably easier to blazon.