From Inquiries into the Origin and Process of the Science of Heraldry in England by James Dallaway, p454
Left to right (click on the names for more examples of each charge):
The escarbuncle. While its origin is not certain, it is believed to have been a way of reinforcing wooden shields. It is probably best known as the badge of Henry II of England, taken from the ancient arms of the French region of Anjou.
The helmet, while most often seen as a component of complete achievements, does occasionally appear by itself as a charge.
The pheon was an ancient dart head. Although its shape and function are similar to the arrowhead, the pheon is barbed.